[Chih-Hang Wu] The battle within: How pathogen effectors suppress NLR-mediated immunity.

Wu and Derevnina, 2023 Current Opinion in Plant Biology

Pathogen effectors utilize different mechanisms to suppress NLR-mediated immunity. (A) Binding NLRs directly; (B) Interfering with NLR recognition; (C) targeting conserved downstream signaling components; (D) perturbing NLR homeostasis and/or NLR subcellular dynamics; and (E) functioning as enzymes to divert secondary messengers necessary for NLR signaling.

In order to successfully colonize the host plant, plant pathogens employ various strategies to interfere with the plant immune system. Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins serve as intracellular immune receptors and are a major component of the plant immune system. As resistance genes against plant diseases, NLRs recognize effector proteins secreted by different pathogens and trigger hypersensitive reactions leading to cell death. To suppress plant immune responses, some effector proteins have evolved the ability to inhibit NLR-mediated immune reactions. In this literature review, we summarize the latest findings related to effector protein-mediated inhibition of NLRs and classify these effector proteins based on their mechanisms of action. We explore various strategies employed by pathogens to inhibit NLR-mediated immune responses and how our understanding of effector proteins can be utilized to develop new approaches for disease resistance breeding.

Wu CH and Derevnina L. (2023) The battle within: How pathogen effectors suppress NLR-mediated immunity. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 74:102396.