Nakamura, Yuki (中村友輝)

Research Fellow

  • 2020 - present:Research Fellow, IPMB, Academia Sinica, Taiwan
  • 2015 - 2020 : Associate Research Fellow, IPMB, Academia Sinica, Taiwan
  • 2015-present: EMBO Young Investigator
  • 2016-present: Adjunct Associate Professor, Taiwan International Graduate Program (TIGP), National Chun-Hsing Univ., Taiwan
  • 2014-2016: Adjunct Assistant Professor, Taiwan International Graduate Program (TIGP), National Chun-Hsing Univ., Taiwan
  • 2011-2015: Assistant Research Fellow, IPMB, Academia Sinica, Taiwan
  • 2011-2014: PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Japan
  • 2010-2011: A. von Humboldt Research Fellow, Max-Planck-Institute of Plant Breeding Research, Cologne, Germany; Univ. Bonn, Germany
  • 2009-2010: Research Fellow, National University of Singapore
  • 2007-2009: JSPS Research Fellow, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore
  • 2007: Ph.D. Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
  • +886-2-2787-1130(Lab)
  • +886-2-2787-1029(Office)
  • nakamura@gate.sinica.edu.tw
  • Lipid diversity in plant growth and development


~Lipids to understand plant life

Lipids are the most predominant yet diverse biological molecule. Apart from being essential cellular membranes or energy storage components, lipids have now emerged as dynamic signal mediators. Using the seed plant Arabidopsis and the microalgae Chlamydomonas as model systems, our research group investigates how lipids interact with key signaling modules to coordinate their crucial life events. Our findings will not only help resolve outstanding or totally unknown questions in plant sciences, but also provide industry with potential candidates to future development.


~Think with lipids whenever an unresolved biological issue appears

Lipids interact with other molecules to fulfill their roles. Our primary focus is "lipid-protein interaction" in the signaling cascades. As below, our ongoing projects all aim to unravel the interplay between lipids and key components of signaling modules in various aspects of plant development.

Circadian-controlled lipid levels and flowering time control

Lipids are circadian-controlled. This rhythmic oscillation resonates with well-established environmental inputs, such as light, temperature and plant hormones, to coordinate proper flowering time. This project focuses on the specific interaction between lipids and the key components that control flowering time.

Organ patterning and stem cell regulation by lipids

Lipids contribute to the beauty of plant body. This is because of their tight association with stem cell maintenance. Hence, malfunctions in this regulatory network collapse the organ's positioning mechanism, resulting in odd-shaped plants. Our collection of funny-looking lipid mutants demonstrate their key role in maintaining a plant's shapely form.

Inter-organelle logistics of lipid deposition in seed maturation

Lipids are deposited as an energy source during seed maturation. This project focuses on understanding how lipid accumulation is initiated, how lipids are allocated to specific sites and how they are deposited as a lipid droplet. We aim to uncover the inter-organelle dynamism of lipid trafficking and will eventually apply this work to agriculture.


~"Metabolic Switching System", a technical innovation in lipid studies

Lipids are not genetically encoded. Hence, changing lipid levels in vivo is not easily achieved by gene manipulation. Our "Metabolic Switching Systems" is a novel technical platform that enables us to alter site-specific lipid levels by transiently altering the lipid metabolic flow. We are developing this system to observe the spatiotemporal effects of altered lipid levels in tissue function.


~Tempered approaches from cutting-edge omics to established biochemistry

Lipids are to be investigated multilaterally. The experimental approach should not limit the project's expansion, but should be chosen in accordance with the scientific goal. Hence, we encompass a wide range of experimental techniques from modern systems approaches to established biochemistry. We keep acquiring new skills so that we can always apply the best approach to given scientific questions.


~Green innovation by algal biofuel production

Lipids have the potential to save the world. Our Metabolic Switching System is now being applied to algal cells to switch the metabolic flow toward triglyceride biosynthesis. This vigorous "green micro-factory" will mass-produce a source of biodiesel with given quality, thereby contributing to bioenergy creation and other oil industries.



















All publication list

Selected publication list

Original articles (* corresponding author; †co-first author)

  1. Anh H. Ngo, Yuki Nakamura*. (2022) Phosphate starvation-inducible GLYCEROPHOSPHODIESTER PHOSPHODIESTE RASE6 is involved in Arabidopsis root growth. J Exp Bot 73:2995-3003.
  2. Yue-Rong Tan, Yuki Nakamura*. (2022) The importance of Arabidopsis PHOSPHOLIPID N-METHYLTRANSFERASE in glycerolipid metabolism and plant growth. J Exp Bot 73:2971-2984.
  3. Yu-chi Liu, Yue-Rong Tan, Chin-Wen Chang, Van C. Nguyen, Kazue Kanehara, Koichi Kobayashi, Yuki Nakamura*. (2022) Functional divergence of a pair of Arabidopsis phospho-base methyltransferases, PMT1 and PMT3, conferred by distinct N-terminal sequences. Plant Jorg/10.1111/tpj.15741
  4. Sho Fujii, Koichi Kobayashi*, Ying-Chen Lin, Yu-chi Liu, Yuki Nakamura, Hajime Wada. (2022) Impacts of phosphatidylglycerol on plastid gene expression and light induction of nuclear photosynthetic genes. J Exp Bot 73:2952-2970.
  5. Anh H. Ngo, Artik Elisa Angkawijaya, Ying-Chen Lin, Yu-chi Liu, Yuki Nakamura*. (2021) The phospho-base N-methyltransferases PMT1 and PMT2 produce phosphocholine for leaf growth in phosphorus-starved Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot 73:2985-2994.
  6. Debayan Bose, Anh H. Ngo, Van C. Nguyen, Yuki Nakamura*. (2021) Non‐specific phospholipases C2 and 6 redundantly function in pollen tube growth via triacylglycerol production in Arabidopsis. Plant J 106(2):409-418.
  7. Haruhiko Jimbo*, Taichi Izuhara, Takashi Hirashima, Kaichiro Endo, Yuki Nakamura, Hajime Wada. (2021) Membrane lipid remodeling in required for photosystem II function under low CO2. Plant J 105:245-253.
  8. Artik Elisa Angkawijaya†, Cam Van Nguyen†, Farrel Gunawan, and Yuki Nakamura*. (2020) A pair of diacylglycerol kinases essential for gametogenesis and ER phospholipid metabolism in leaves and flowers of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 32:2602-2620.
  9. Ying-Chen Lin†, Galileo Estopare Araguirang†, Anh Hai Ngo†, Kui-Ting Lin, Artik Elisa Angkawijaya, Yuki Nakamura*. (2020) The 4 Arabidopsis Choline/Ethanolamine Kinase Isozymes Play Distinct Roles in Metabolism and Development. Plant Physiol.183(1):152-166.
  10. Yuki Nakamura*, Ying-Chen Lin, Satoshi Watanabe, Yu-chi Liu, Kenta Katsuyama, Kazue Kanehara, and Kenji Inaba*. (2019) High-resolution crystal structure of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T illuminates its phospholipid-binding site in flowering. iScience, 21:577-586.[Editor’s pick]
  11. Anh Hai Ngo, Kazue Kanehara, and Yuki Nakamura*. (2019) Non‐specific phospholipases C, NPC2 and NPC6, are required for root growth in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 100(4):825-835.[cover issue: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tpj.14257]
  12. Artik Elisa Angkawijaya, Van Cam Nguyen, and Yuki Nakamura*. (2019) Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases 4 and 5 are involved in glycerolipid metabolism and nitrogen starvation response in Arabidopsis. New Phytol. 224(1):336-351.
  13. Ying-Chen Lin, Kazue Kanehara, and Yuki Nakamura*. (2019) Arabidopsis CHOLINE/ETHNAOLAMINE KINASE 1 (CEK1) is a primary choline kinase localized at the ER and involved in ER stress tolerance. New Phytol. 223(4):1904-1917.
  14. Artik Elisa Angkawijaya, Farrel Gunawan, and Yuki Nakamura*. (2019) Expression profiles of 2 phosphate starvation-inducible phosphocholine/ phosphoethanolamine phosphatases, PECP1 and PS2, in Arabidopsis. Front Plant Sci. 10:662.
  15. Van Cam Nguyen, Yuki Nakamura, and Kazue Kanehara*. (2019) Membrane lipid polyunsaturation mediated by FATTY ACID DESATURASE 2 (FAD2) is involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 99(3):478-493
  16. Yu-chi Liu and Yuki Nakamura*. (2019) Triacylglycerol production in the snow algae Chlamydomonas nivalis under different nutrient conditions. Lipids 54(4):255-262.
  17. Yu-chi Liu, Ying-Chen Lin, Kazue Kanehara, and Yuki Nakamura*. (2019) A methyltransferase trio essential for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and growth. Plant Physiol. 179(2):433-445.
  18. Yu-chi Liu, Ying-Chen Lin, Kazue Kanehara, and Yuki Nakamura*. (2018) A pair of phospho-base methyltransferases important for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 96(5):1064-1075.
  19. Yu-chi Liu, Farrel Gunawan, Ian Sofian Yunus, and Yuki Nakamura*. (2018) Arabidopsis Serine Decarboxylase 1 (SDC1) in Phospholipid and Amino Acid Metabolism. Front Plant Sci. 9:972. doi.10.3389/fpls.2018.00972
  20. Anh Hai Ngo, Ying-Chen Lin, Yu-chi Liu, Katharina Gutbrod, Helga Peisker, Peter Dörmann, and Yuki Nakamura* (2018) A pair of non-specific phospholipases C, NPC2 and NPC6, is involved in gametophyte development and glycerolipid metabolism in Arabidopsis. New Phytol. 219(1):163-175.
  21. Ying-Chen Lin, Koichi Kobayashi, Hajime Wada, and Yuki Nakamura* (2018) Phosphatidylglycerophosphate phosphatase is required for root growth in Arabidopsis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta - Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 1863(6):563-575.
  22. Artik Elisa Angkawijaya and Yuki Nakamura* (2017) Arabidopsis PECP1 and PS2 are phosphate starvation-inducible phosphocholine phosphatases. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 494:397-401.
  23. Artik Elisa Angkawijaya, Van Cam Nguyen, and Yuki Nakamura* (2017) Enhanced root growth in phosphate-starved Arabidopsis by stimulating de novo phospholipid biosynthesis through the overexpression of LYSOPHOSPHATIDIC ACID ACYLTRANSFERASE 2 (LPAT2). Plant Cell Environ. 40(1):1807-1818.  
  24. Takashi Hirashima, Masakazu Toyoshima, Takashi Moriyama, Yuki Nakamura, and Naoki Sato (2017) Characterization of phosphoethanolamine-N-methyltransferases in green algae. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 488(1):141-146.
  25. Yueh Cho, Chao-Yuan Yu, Yuki Nakamura, and Kazue Kanehara* (2017) Arabidopsis dolichol kinase AtDOK1 is involved in flowering time control. J. Exp. Bot. 68(12):3243-3252.
  26. Ying-Chen Lin, Koichi Kobayashi, Chun-Hsien Hung, Hajime Wada, and Yuki Nakamura* (2016) Arabidopsis PHOSPHATIDYLGLYCEROPHOSPHATE PHOSPHATASE1 (PGPP1) involved in phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis and photosynthetic function. Plant J., 88:1022-1037.
  27. Ian Sofian Yunus†, Yu-chi Liu†, and Yuki Nakamura* (2016) The importance of SERINE DECARBOXYLASE1 (SDC1) and ethanolamine biosynthesis during embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J., 88:559-569.
  28. Chun-Hsien Hung, Kazue Kanehara, and Yuki Nakamura*(2016) Isolation and characterization of a mutant defective in triacylglycerol accumulation in nitrogen-starved Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biochimica. Biophysica. Acta, 1861:1282-1293.
  29. Chun-Hsien Hung, Kazue Kanehara, and Yuki Nakamura*(2016) In vivo reconstitution of algal triacylglycerol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Front. Microbiol., 7:70. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00070
  30. Chun-Hsien Hung, Koichi Kobayashi, Hajime Wada, and Yuki Nakamura*(2016) Functional specificity of cardiolipin synthase revealed by the identification of a cardiolipin synthase CrCLS1 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Front. Microbiol., 6:1542. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01542
  31. Kazue Kanehara*, Chao-Yuan Yu, Yueh Cho, Wei-Fun Cheong, Federico Torta, Guanghou Shui, Markus R Wenk, and Yuki Nakamura (2015)  Arabidopsis AtPLC2 is a primary phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C in phosphoinositide metabolism and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. PLOS Genet., DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005511
  32. Chun-Hsien Hung, Kaichiro Endo, Koichi Kobayashi, Yuki Nakamura*, and Hajime Wada (2015) Characterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Front. Microbiol., 6:842. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00842
  33. Ian Sofian Yunus, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Yu-chi Liu, Ying-Chen Lin, Markus R. Wenk and Yuki Nakamura* (2015) Phosphatidic acid is a major phospholipid class in reproductive organs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Signal. Behav., DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1049790
  34. Ying-Chen Lin, Yu-chi Liu, Yuki Nakamura*. (2015) The choline/ethanolamine kinase family in Arabidopsis: Essential role of CEK4 in phospholipid biosynthesis and embryo development. Plant Cell, 27:1497-1511. [cover issue:  http://www.plantcell.org/content/27/5.cover-expansion]
  35. Chun-Hsien Hung, Koichi Kobayashi, Hajime Wada, Yuki Nakamura*. (2015) Isolation and characterization of a phosphatodylglycerol-phosphate phosphatase1, PGPP1, in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Physiol. Biochem., 92:56-61.
  36. Kazue Kanehara*, Yueh Cho, Ying-Chen Lin, Chia-En Chen, Chao-Yuan Yu and Yuki Nakamura. (2015) Arabidopsis DOK1 encodes a functional dolichol kinase involved in reproduction, Plant J., 81:292-303.
  37. Sho Fujii, Koichi Kobayashi*, Yuki Nakamura* and Hajime Wada. (2014) Inducible knockdown of MONOGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL SYNTHASE1 reveals roles of galactolipids in organelle differentiation in Arabidopsis cotyledons. Plant Physiol., 166:1436-1449.
  38. Yuki Nakamura*, Fernando Andrés, Kazue Kanehara, Yu-chi Liu, George Coupland and Peter Dörmann. (2014) Diurnal and circadian expression profiles of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis. Plant Signal. Behav., e29715 doi:10.4161/psb.29715.
  39. Yuki Nakamura*, Yu-chi Liu and Ying-Chen Lin. (2014) Floral glycerolipid profiles in homeotic mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commu., 450:1272-1275.
  40. Yuki Nakamura*, Fernando Andrés, Kazue Kanehara, Yu-chi Liu, Peter Dörmann and George Coupland. (2014) Arabidopsis florigen FT binds to diurnally oscillating phospholipids that accelerate flowering. Nat. Commun., 5:3553 doi: 10.1038/ncomms4553.
  41. Yuki Nakamura*, Norman Z. W. Teo, Guanghou Shui, Christine H.L. Chua, Wei-Fun Cheong, Sriram Parameswaran, Ryota Koizumi, Hiroyuki Ohta, Markus R. Wenk and Toshiro Ito*. (2014) Transcriptomic and lipidomic profiles of glycerolipids during Arabidopsis flower development. New Phytol., 203:310-322.
  42. Chun-Hsien Hung, Ming-Yang Ho, Kazue Kanehara and Yuki Nakamura*. (2013) Functional study of diacylglycerol acyltransferase type 2 family in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. FEBS Lett., 587:2364-2370.
  43. Yuki Nakamura, Ryota Koizumi, Guanghou Shui, Mie Shimojima, Markus R. Wenk, Toshiro Ito and Hiroyuki Ohta*. (2009) Arabidopsis lipins mediate eukaryotic pathway of lipid metabolism and cope critically with phosphate starvation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 106:20978-83.
  44. Yuki Nakamura, Koichi Kobayashi and Hiroyuki Ohta*. (2009) Activation of Galactolipid Biosynthesis in Development of Pistils and Pollen tubes. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 47:535-539.
  45. Nicole Gaude, Yuki Nakamura, Wolf-Rudiger Scheible, Hiroyuki Ohta and Peter Dörmann* (2008) Phospholipase C5 (NPC5) is involved in galactolipid accumulation during phosphate limitation in leaves of Arabidopsis. Plant J. 56:28-39.
  46. Yuki Nakamura and Hiroyuki Ohta* (2007) The diacylglycerol forming pathways differ among floral organs of Petunia hybrida. FEBS Lett. 581:5475-5479.
  47. Yuki Nakamura, Mami Tsuchiya and Hiroyuki Ohta* (2007) Plastidic phosphatidic acid phosphatases identified in a distinct subfamily of lipid phosphate phosphatases with prokaryotic origin. J. Biol. Chem. 282:29013-29021.
  48. Koichiro Awai, Takatoshi Kakimoto, Chie Awai, Takakazu Kaneko, Yuki Nakamura, Ken-ichiro Takamiya, Hajime Wada and Hiroyuki Ohta*.(2006) Comparative genomic analysis revealed a gene for monoglucosyldiacylglycerol synthase, an enzyme for photosynthetic membrane lipid synthesis in cyanobacteria. Plant Physiol. 141:1120-1127.
  49. Yuki Nakamura, Koichiro Awai, Tatsuru Masuda, Yasushi Yoshioka, Ken-ichiro Takamiya and Hiroyuki Ohta*. (2005) A novel phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C induced by phosphate starvation in Arabidopsis. J. Biol. Chem. 280:7469-7476. [Recommended by Faculty1000]
  50. Yuki Nakamura, Hitomi Arimitsu, Yoshiki Yamaryo, Koichiro Awai, Tatsuru Masuda, Hiroshi Shimada, Ken-ichiro Takamiya and Hiroyuki Ohta*. (2003) Digalactosyldiacylglycerol is a major glycolipid in floral organs of Petunia hybrida. Lipids 38:1107-1112.

Review articles / book chapters / editorials

  1. Mi Chung Suh, Hyun Uk Kim, and Yuki Nakamura*. (2022) Plant lipids: trends and beyond. J Exp Bot 73:2715-2720.
  2. Yuki Nakamura*. (2021) Headgroup biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in seed plants. Prog Lipid Res. 82:101091.
  3. Yuki Nakamura* and Anh H. Ngo. (2020) Non-specific phospholipase C (NPC): an emerging class of phospholipase C in plant growth and development. J Plant Res. 133:489-497.
  4. Yuki Nakamura*. (2018) Membrane Lipid Oscillation: An Emerging System of Molecular Dynamics in the Plant Membrane. Plant Cell Physiol. 59:441-447.
  5. Yuki Nakamura*. (2017) Plant phospholipid diversity: Emerging functions in metabolism and protein-lipid interactions. Trends Plant Sci. 22(12):1027-1040.
  6. Takashi Osanai*, Youn-Il Park* and Yuki Nakamura*. (2017) Editorial: Biotechnology of Microalgae, Based on Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of Eukaryotic Algae and Cyanobacteria. Front. Microbiol. 8:118. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00118
  7. Yonghua Li-Beisson*, Yuki Nakamura and John Harwood. (2016) Lipids: From Chemical Structures, Biosynthesis, and Analyses to Industrial Applications. In “Lipids in Plant and Algae Development (Y Nakamura and Y Li-Beisson eds)” Subcellular Biochemistry 86:1-18, Springer.
  8. Yuki Nakamura*. (2015) Function of polar glycerolipids in flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Prog. Lipid. Res. 60:17-29.
  9. Yuki Nakamura*. (2014) NPC: non-specific phospholipase Cs in plant functions. In “Phospholipases in Plant Signaling (Wang, X ed) Singaling and Communication in Plants 8094:55-68, Springer.
  10. Yuki Nakamura*. (2013) Galactolipid biosynthesis in flowers. Botanical Studies, 54:29.
  11. Yuki Nakamura*. (2013) Assaying Plant Phosphatidic Acid Phosphatase Activity. In "Plant Lipid Signaling Protocols (Munnik T and Heilmann I, eds)" Methods in Molecular Biology 1009:233-240, Springer.
  12. Yuki Nakamura*. (2013) Phosphate starvation and membrane lipid remodeling in seed plants. Prog. Lipid. Res. 52:43-50.
  13. Yuki Nakamura and Hiroyuki Ohta*. (2011) Phosphatidic Acid Phosphatases in Seed Plants ~ Involvement in Membrane Lipid Biosynthesis and Signal Transduction. Seikagaku (Biochemistry) 82:1137-40 [Review in Japanese]
  14. Yuki Nakamura, Koichi Kobayashi, Mie Shimojima and Hiroyuki Ohta*. (2010) Biosynthesis and Function of Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, the Signature Lipid of Chloroplasts. In "The Chloroplast (Rebeiz, CA ed)" Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration 31:185-202, Springer.
  15. Mie Shimojima*, Hiroyuki Ohta and Yuki Nakamura. (2010) Biosynthesis and Function of Chloroplast Lipids. In "Lipids in Photosynthesis (Wada, H. and Murata, N eds)" Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration 30:35-55, Springer.
  16. Yuki Nakamura and Hiroyuki Ohta*. (2010) Phosphatidic acid phosphatases in seed plants. In "Lipid Singaling in Plants (Munnik T, ed)", Plant Cell Monographs 16:131-141, Springer.
  17. Koichi Kobayashi, Yuki Nakamura and Hiroyuki Ohta*. (2009) Type A and type B monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthases are spatially and functionally separated in plastids of higher plants. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 47:518-525.
Yu-chi Liu
Research Technician Assistant
Yue Rong Tan
PhD candidate
Nina Alyssa M. Barroga
PhD candidate
Chynthia Hortono Dewi
Research Assistant

Lab Alumni

Ming-Yang Ho (Sep 2012 – Jun 2013)
Assistant Professor, National Taiwan University

Artik Elisa Angkawijaya (May 2015 – Jul 2019)
Assistant Professor, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology

Anh H. Ngo (Aug 2014 – Jul 2021)
Research Scholar, Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology, Academia Sinica, Taiwan

Ian Sofian Yunus (Jul 2014 – Sep 2015)
Postdoctoral Researcher, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California, USA

Ying-Chen Lin (May 2013 – Jul 2019)
Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Oxford, UK

Van C. Nguyen (Sep 2017 – Jul 2021)
Postdoctoral Fellow, Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology, Academia Sinica, Taiwan

Debayan Bose (Aug 2019 - Aug 2021)
Postdoctoral Fellow, Energy and Environmental Science Institute, West Virginia State University, USA

Galileo Estopare Araguirang (May 2018 – Jul 2019)

Chin-Wen Chang (Aug 2019 – Jul 2021)

Kui-Ting Lin (Apr 2018 – Jul 2021)

Chun-Hsien Hung (Dec 2011 – Dec 2015) 

Panadda Kungwon (Jan – Dec 2017)

Farrel Gunawan (Dec 2016 – Dec 2018)